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#221 lethe


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Posted 13 March 2014 - 10:02 PM

#222 lethe


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Posted 13 March 2014 - 10:18 PM

#223 lethe


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Posted 13 March 2014 - 10:36 PM


Edited by lethe, 08 April 2014 - 06:30 PM.

#224 lethe


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Posted 15 March 2014 - 07:06 PM


Edited by lethe, 08 April 2014 - 06:30 PM.

#225 lethe


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Posted 22 March 2014 - 03:39 PM



Medical marijuana users can grow at home, for now
Health Canada's new rules to take effect April 1 prohibit medical pot users from growing at home


CBC News Posted: Mar 21, 2014 10:01 AM PT Last Updated: Mar 21, 2014 8:18 PM PT


(Note: CBC does not endorse and is not responsible for the content of external links.)


A Federal Court judge in Vancouver has granted a last-minute reprieve for medical marijuana users who say they need to be able to grow their own pot at home.


On Friday morning, the judge granted an injunction allowing those who have a personal production licence to grow medical marijuana to continue for now, pending the outcome of a trial to be held at a later date.


The roughly 40,000 Canadians with an authorization to possess medical marijuana will also be allowed to continue to do so under the injunction, though they will only be permitted to hold up to 150 grams.


A Federal Court judge issued an injunction Friday that will allow medical marijuana users who have a personal production licence to continue to grow their own plants at home, despite the April 1st introduction of Health Canada's new Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR). (Justin Tang/CP)


Without the injunction, Health Canada's new laws, which go into effect April 1, would end the home production of medical marijuana.


Instead, all those using medical marijuana would have to purchase it from large-scale commercial facilities that are being set up around the country.


Patients have voiced concern about the cost and the quality of the product they will be able to obtain under the new system.


Abbotsford, B.C., lawyer John Conroy was in court this week seeking the interim injunction for growers.


Conroy alleges that Health Canada's pronouncements are a violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Earlier this week, Conroy argued that the new rules create an intractable dilemma for patients.


"If the patient can't afford the medicine at the prices under the program that's being produced, then they're placed in a position where they have to choose between their liberty and their health," Conroy said.



Under Health Canada's new rules, patients growing cannabis at home must send notification to Health Canada by April 30 stating that they've stopped production and destroyed their plants, or law enforcement will be notified. (CBC)

Without the injunction, patients would have t destroy their plants before April 1 and send notification to Health Canada by April 30 stating that they've stopped production and destroyed their plants, or law enforcement would be notified.


The federal government had argued in its statement of defence that grow-ops in houses lead to safety problems, such as fire hazards and mould.

The government also argued that home-based grow-ops put people at risk of home invasions — meaning attempted robberies like the one this past weekend at a licensed medical marijuana grow-op in Langley, B.C.

Health Canada issued a statement Friday following the judge's decision, expressing once more its goal "to treat dried marijuana as much as possible like other narcotic drugs used for medical purposes."


The department said the rapid expansion of its marijuana access program from 100 authorized users in 2001 to just under 40,000 last year "has had significant unintended consequences on public health, safety and security."


Statement from Health Canada regarding decision in Allard et al. v. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

March 21, 2014

OTTAWA – Health Canada is committed to the implementation of the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations in order to provide Canadians reasonable access to dried marijuana for medical purposes, while protecting public safety.


Health Canada will review the decision in detail and consider its options.


When the Marihuana Medical Access Program was introduced in 2001 in response to a Court decision, the number of people authorized to possess marijuana for medical purposes stood at less than 100. Over the years that number has grown to close to 40,000.


The rapid expansion under the Marihuana Medical Access Program has had significant unintended consequences on public health, safety and security. Under this Program, people growing marijuana in private homes added to health, safety and security risks. The high value of marijuana on the illicit market increases the risks of home invasion and diversion. And these production operations present fire and toxic mould hazards. These risks are not only felt by the home producers, but also by their neighbours and the community.


While the Courts have said there must be reasonable access to marijuana for medical purposes, Health Canada’s goal is to treat dried marijuana as much as possible like other narcotic drugs used for medical purposes. The Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations are intended to provide reasonable access for those Canadians who need access to dried marijuana for medical purposes with the support of a health-care practitioner, while protecting public safety.

It is also important for Canadians to remember that marijuana is not an approved drug or medicine in Canada.



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#226 lethe


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Posted 26 March 2014 - 01:48 PM


#227 lethe


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Posted 27 March 2014 - 08:51 PM

Home » News » Technology News » Could Mushrooms Lead to New Depression Treatments?
Could Mushrooms Lead to New Depression Treatments?
By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor
Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on March 24, 2014

New research using brain imaging technology helps to clarify how psilocybin — the psychoactive ingredient in magic mushrooms — affects the brain, perhaps paving the way for therapeutic use of the substance as an adjunct to psychotherapy.


Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris, from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London, the first author of two new papers, said, “Psilocybin was used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s, but the biological rationale for its use has not been properly investigated until now.”

The Study

In the first study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 30 healthy volunteers had psilocybin infused into their blood while inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, which measure changes in brain activity.


The scans showed that activity decreased in “hub” regions of the brain, areas that are especially well-connected with other areas.


The second study, published online by the British Journal of Psychiatry, found that psilocybin enhanced volunteers’ recollections of personal memories, which the researchers suggest could make it useful as an adjunct to psychotherapy.


Dr. David Nutt, professor of neuropsychopharmacology and senior author of both studies, said, “Psychedelics are thought of as ‘mind-expanding’ drugs so it has commonly been assumed that they work by increasing brain activity, but surprisingly, we found that psilocybin actually caused activity to decrease in areas that have the densest connections with other areas.


“These hubs constrain our experience of the world and keep it orderly. We now know that deactivating these regions leads to a state in which the world is experienced as strange.”


The intensity of the effects reported by the participants, including visions of geometric patterns, unusual bodily sensations, and altered sense of space and time, correlated with a decrease in oxygenation and blood flow in certain parts of the brain.


The function of these areas, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), is the subject of debate among neuroscientists, but the PCC is proposed to have a role in consciousness and self-identity.


The mPFC is known to be hyperactive in depression, so psilocybin’s action on this area could be responsible for some antidepressant effects that have been reported.


Similarly, psilocybin reduced blood flow in the hypothalamus, where blood flow is increased during cluster headaches, perhaps explaining why some sufferers have said symptoms improved under psilocybin.


In the BJP study, 10 volunteers viewed written cues that prompted them to think about memories associated with strong positive emotions while inside the brain scanner.


The participants rated their recollections as being more vivid after taking psilocybin compared with a placebo, and with psilocybin there was increased activity in areas of the brain that process vision and other sensory information.


Participants were also asked to rate changes in their emotional wellbeing two weeks after taking the psilocybin and placebo.


Their ratings of memory vividness under the drug showed a significant positive correlation with wellbeing two weeks afterwards.


In a previous study of 12 people in 2011, researchers found that people with anxiety who were given a single psilocybin treatment had decreased depression scores six months later.


“Our findings support the idea that psilocybin facilitates access to personal memories and emotions,” Carhart-Harris said.

Research Findings

Previous studies have suggested that psilocybin can improve people’s sense of emotional wellbeing and even reduce depression in people with anxiety.


“This is consistent with our finding that psilocybin decreases mPFC activity, as many effective depression treatments do. The effects need to be investigated further, and ours was only a small study, but we are interested in exploring psilocybin’s potential as a therapeutic tool,” he said.


Nevertheless, the researchers acknowledged that because the participants in this study had volunteered after having previous experience of psychedelics, they may have held prior assumptions about the drugs which could have contributed to the positive memory rating and the reports of improved wellbeing in the follow-up


Functional MRI measures brain activity indirectly by mapping blood flow or the oxygen levels in the blood. When an area becomes more active, it uses more glucose, but generates energy in rapid chemical reactions that do not use oxygen.

Consequently, blood flow increases but oxygen consumption does not, resulting in a higher concentration of oxygen in blood in the local veins.


In the PNAS study, the volunteers were split into two groups, each studied using a different type of fMRI: 15 were scanned using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion fMRI, which measures blood flow, and 15 using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI.


The two modalities produced similar results, strongly suggesting that the observed effects were genuine.


The studies were carried out using protocol for licensed storeage and handling of a schedule I drug and were approved by NHS research ethics committees.


All the volunteers were mentally and physically healthy and had taken hallucinogenic drugs previously without any adverse response.


The research involved scientists from Imperial, the University of Bristol and Cardiff University and was funded by the Beckley Foundation, the Neuropsychoanalysis Foundation, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, and the Heffter Research Institute.


#228 lethe


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Posted 05 April 2014 - 09:51 PM



More doctors than consumers say medical marijuana should be legal: Survey

The legalization of medical marijuana has more support among U.S. doctors than among consumers, a new survey found.


The survey of more than 1,500 doctors and nearly 3,000 consumers found that 69 percent of doctors said medical marijuana can help with certain conditions and treatments. Only 52 percent of consumers expressed that same belief.


Among doctors, 67 percent said they believed medical marijuana should be a treatment option for patients. Half of those doctors in states where medical marijuana isn't legal said it should be legalized, as did 52 percent of doctors in states considering such laws.


Support for medical marijuana was highest among cancer specialists (oncologists) and blood disorder specialists (hematologists). For those two groups, 82 percent said marijuana can provide real benefits to patients. The same percentage said marijuana should be a treatment option for patients, according to the WebMD/Medscape survey.


Among consumers, 50 percent said medical marijuana should be legalized nationwide, including 49 percent of those in states where it is not legal. Forty-five percent said the benefits of medical marijuana outweigh the risks.


Support for legalization of marijuana for recreational use was lower among both doctors (53 percent) and consumers (51 percent), according to the survey, titled Marijuana on Main Street.

Currently, more than 10 states are considering bills to legalize medical marijuana.


Peer-review research on the benefits of medical marijuana remains limited, the report noted.

"Despite more than 20 years of anecdotal evidence about the medicinal effects of marijuana, doctors and consumers remain in search of answers," Dr. Michael Smith, WebMD's chief medical editor, said in a company news release.


"The findings of our consumer-physician survey indicate the medical community's support for the use of marijuana as a treatment option, particularly among clinical specialties that have pioneered research," Smith said.



"Yet these survey data suggest additional studies will inform decision-makers' confidence in where medical marijuana can help and where it might not," he added.


The surveys were conducted from late February to early March.


More information


The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse has more on the medical use of marijuana.

Copyright © 2014 HealthDay. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Edited by lethe, 05 April 2014 - 09:54 PM.

#229 lethe


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Posted 05 April 2014 - 10:25 PM




Worth Repeating: Top 10 Studies Showing Medical Marijuana Helps Fight Parkinson’s Disease


Editor’s note: Welcome to Room 420, where your instructor is Mr. Ron Marczyk and your subjects are wellness, disease prevention, self actualization, and chillin’. ~ Steve Elliott

Worth Repeating
By Ron Marczyk, R.N.

I have felt my own mortality and was humbled to learn that two long-time friends my age have been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, both within the last few months of each other. My friends, and millions of others, are searching for any new treatment that could heal and restore brain homeostasis and halt the progression of this neurodegenerative disease.

 Cannabinoids are neuroprotectants.


Worth Repeating: Cannabinoids Stop Brain Inflammation

We all have fragile friends and family with very similar serious medical conditions whom we all wish we could help. How many times in your private thoughts did think of that person you love and say to yourself, I wish there was a medicine I could find that would heal them?

When you are searching for hope and it appears, it’s like the hero in a movie appearing in the nick of time. The cannabis plant is that all-around hero of our time.


“Captain Cannbinoid” aka Captain Cannabis™
Super powers: Uses cannabinoid power to produce neurogenesis, heal and reset body systems to homeostatic stillness. Sworn to the Cannabinoid Hippocratic Oath to never take a human life.


The Cannabinoid Hippocratic Oath: As a plant-based medicine I will first do no harm:  gentleness is my very nature.




Patent Title: Cannabinoids act as antioxidants and neuroprotectants


Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human ServicesHuman Servicesarrow-10x10.png    http://www.google.co...tents/US6630507

“As an antioxidant cannabinoids… have a particular application as a neuroprotectants in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and dementia”



What is the significance of US Government Patent 6,630,507? http://www.youtube.c...h?v=agZuafXG2Ds


Helping my friends in their search for evidence-based cannabis treatment, the gold standard for evidence appeared in the form of this famous 2003 Department of Health and Human ServicesHuman Servicesarrow-10x10.png medical cannabis patent, which I also learned was a clone of an earlier exact 1998 study by the same researchers.


Cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants/ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences / 1998 July



Cannabis is a potent brain anti-inflammatory medicine


“The non psychoactive marijuana constituent cannabidiol was found to prevent both glutamate neurotoxicity and Reactive oxygen species -induced cell death. The psychoactive principle of Cannabis, THC, also blocked glutamate neurotoxicity with a similar potency to cannabidiol”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species    http://en.wikipedia....e_neurotoxicity


Taken together, these two studies highlight, document and support what was known for 16 years: that the Department of Health and Human Services supplied evidence that was vetted for accuracy by the U.S. Patent Office and granted the highest official seal of approval, stating that cannabinoids could be used as a direct form of treatment for the big four neurological diseases — Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosismultiple sclerosisarrow-10x10.png, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

As early as 1998, robust evidence existed that endocannabinoids protected the brain from neurodegenerative diseases; the evidence was so good that the U.S. government put a lock on it, for the benefit of U.S. citizens I assume.


So how come no independent cannabinoid research in the U.S? No first generation cannabis medicines in the pipeline?


Because of the big lie called Schedule I, which shuts down all positive research.


This shutdown of scientific research caused direct harm to millions of people who, for nearly  two decades, were  desperately looking for new treatment options so they could simply live another day.  Why no human drug trials?


“Considering the relevance of preclinical data, the need for finding treatments for motor symptoms that may be alternative to classic dopamine replacement therapy and the lack of efficient neuroprotective strategies in Parkinson’s”…

“We believe it is of major interest to develop further studies that allow the promising expectations generated for these molecules (cannabinoids) to progress from the present preclinical evidence towards a real clinical application.”

From:  Cannabinoids and Parkinson’s disease /CNS & Neuro. Disorders Drug Targets/Dec 2009



Dr. Mark Ware on the Endocannabinoid System: http://www.youtube.c...h?v=8Jz1nQ_leWE
“The potential of cannabinoid-based medicines in Parkinson’s have been still scarcely studied at the clinical level despite the existence of solid and promising preclinical evidence…”



For one government agency to first supply solid evidence that cannabinoids are the new frontier of anti-inflammation brain medicine, then for a second government agency to validate the evidence with a patent, and then for a third government agency to stonewall that same medical research into the development of those drugs that could have been fast-tracked to prevent needless suffering and countless deaths, all for hidden political reasons and in order to not admit that they were

wrong, is immoral, and the very definition of a crime against the people of this great country.


Rick Simpson’s Hemp Oil Medicine

For a government agency to stop patients from accessing life-saving medicine reminds me of another famous experiment conducted when life-saving medicine was withheld from people in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis experiment. Is medical marijuana as Schedule I really any different from this atrocity?




So, who of those in power for the last 16 years are responsible for stopping real clinical application of medical cannabis research for neurodegenerative disease, and who in power today are stopping this important scientific progress from saving lives?


Cannabis is nontoxic and has never caused a fatality from direct use, ever! Cannabis is so safe it sets the goldgoldarrow-10x10.png standard against which all other drugs should be measured for safety.


Trichomes-325x234.pngCan you appreciate depth of that statement and the impeccable safety record of this botanical medicine? The science is on our side, so why not immediate clinical use? The downside of immediate cannabis-based treatments for neurodegenerative disease is near zero, but still no movement towards real clinical application to help average people.


Schedule I has been falsified and is pseudoscience. http://en.wikipedia....i/Pseudoscience

The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra. An unknown inflammation process appears to be killing off these cells; it is here where medical cannabinoids protect the remaining dopamine cells and perhaps stimulate neurogenesis of new ones.


Pharmaceutical use of cannabis is not new and history shows us how this miracle plant has been misinterpreted through an era of ignorance. Cannabis has been used for thousands of years, and the credibility of marijuana as a therapy specifically for Parkinson’s disease is somewhat new. “Marijuana is a miracle plant that helps Parkinson’s patients and benefits people suffering from many other illnesses,” states PD patient and author of “Marijuana for Parkinson’s Disease ” -  Richard Secklin   


OldAgeCannabis.pngMedical cannabis treatment has the potential to help improve function, decrease dyskinesias, delay or stop disease progression, and, most importantly, extend life, preserve function and provide joy.

Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants, US patent 6630507, are our heroes.

Here are the top 10 cannabinoid science medical studies that support US Patent 6630507.

I hope this may be of help to you when formulating your treatment options with your physician.



1. Endocannabinoid Modulation of Dopaminergic Motor Circuits / Front. Pharmacol. / June 2012


“There is substantial evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the Dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia, a forebrain system that integrates cortical information to coordinate motor activity regulating signals.”

BrainCannabisLeaf-325x159.pngIn fact, the administration of plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous cannabinoids produces several effects on motor function. These effects are mediated primarily through the CB1 receptors that are densely located in the dopamine-enriched basal ganglia networks, suggesting that the motor effects of endocannabinoids are due, at least in part, to modulation of Dopaminergic transmission.”


“Therefore, it has been suggested that endocannabinoid system modulation may constitute an important component in new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motor disturbances”.



According to the Merck Index, 12th edition (the number one reference book for medical doctors), the LD 50 value for rats by inhalation of THC is 42 mg/kg of body weight. Comparing this to an average human being, one estimate of THC’s LD 50 for humans indicates that about 1,500 pounds (680 kg) if cannabis would have to be smoked within 14 minutes.


“l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) constitute one of the most disabling complications derived from the long-term therapy with l-DOPA affecting up to 40% of PD patients after 5years of treatment”


“Cannabinoid agonists could exert antidyskinetic effect by regulating glutamatergic release in the striatum and/or by re-establishing endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity affected by dopamine denervation.”



2. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders / Br J Pharmacol. 2011 August



Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia.


“Cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism… leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB2 receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB2 receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB2 receptor agonists in both disorders…



In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB2 receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation”.




3. Medical marijuana treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease International Parkinson’s Congress/June, 2013 http://www.mdsabstra...D=798&id=106491



 “Cannabis holds promise as another treatment option for PD. It can apparently alleviate not only the motor symptoms but also the non-motor symptoms, especially PD-related pain and sleep, thereby improving patient quality of life.”


4. An overview of Parkinson’s disease and the cannabinoid system and possible benefits of cannabinoid-based treatments /Current Med Chem. 2006 http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17168732



“Despite the many recent advances in the symptomatic treatment of PD, there is still no realistic prospect for a cure. In recent years, new data support the idea of a relevant role for the cannabinoid system in PD”.

 “As cannabinoids have neuroprotective properties, they have been proposed as potentially useful neuroprotective substances in PD, as well as to alleviate some symptoms in specific circumstances (i.e. parkinsonian tremor associated with over activity to the subthalamic nucleus; levodopa-induced dyskinesia).”


“Cannabinoid-based compounds might provide protection against the progression of neuronal injury characteristic of this disease; the influence of cannabinoids on local inflammatory events associated with the pathogenesis in PD.”


“Collectively, all these evidence support that the management of the cannabinoid system might represent a new approach to the treatment of PD”.



5. The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction

Br J Pharmacol. 2009 April http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19220290

“There is evidence that cannabinoid-based medicines that are selective for different targets in the cannabinoid signaling system (e.g. receptors, inactivation mechanism, enzymes) might be beneficial in basal ganglia disorders, namely Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease”

 “These benefits not only include the alleviation of specific motor symptoms … but also the delay of disease progression due to the neuroprotective properties demonstrated for cannabinoids.


6. The Influence of Cannabinoids on Generic Traits of Neurodegeneration / Br J Pharm., Oct. 2013

“In an increasingly aged population, the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease are on the rise. While the etiologies of these disorders are different, a number of common mechanisms that underlie their neurodegenerative components have been elucidated; namely neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced trophic support.

Current therapies focus on treatment of the symptoms and attempt to delay the progression of these diseases but there is currently no cure. Modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system is emerging as a potentially viable option in the treatment of neurodegeneration. Endocannabinoid signaling has been found to be altered in many neurodegenerative disorders…

 Through multiple lines of evidence, this evolutionarily conserved neuro-signalling system has shown neuroprotective capabilities and is therefore a potential target for neurodegenerative disorders. This review details the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and highlights the beneficial effects of cannabinoid treatment.”


7. The development of cannabinoid CB2  receptor agonists for the treatment of central neuropathies / Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2010 March http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/20236042


“We  discuss the role of microglia in the healthy brain, and then the role of microglia in chronic neuroinflammatory disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, as well as in neuroinflammation following acute brain injury such as stroke and global hypoxia.

As activation of CB2 receptor on microglia results in suppression of the proliferation and activation of microglia, there is potential for the anti-inflammatory properties of CB2 agonist to treat neuropathology’s that involve heightened microglia activity.

 In addition, activating CB2 receptors may result in an increase in proliferation and affect migration of NPCs. Therefore, it is possible that CB2 agonists may assist in the treatment of neuropathology’s by increasing neurogenesis.”


8. The decrease of dopamine D/D receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB cannabinoid receptors in Parkinson’s disease

Brain Research Bulletin/April 2012     http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/22421165

“Our data suggest the presence of an unaltered CB₁R population even in late stages of levodopa treated PD. This further supports the presence of an intact CB₁R population which, in line with the conclusion of earlier publications, may be utilized as a pharmacological target in the treatment of PD”


9. Functional diversity on synaptic plasticity mediated by endocannabinoids/ http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3481528/


“To date, the endocannabinoid system is considered the best characterized form of retrograde synaptic transmission. Short-term forms of plasticity induced by cannabinoids have been described in numerous brain areas in different organisms, accounting not only for our understanding of the hippocampus and cerebellum as the major sites of action for endocannabinoid system, but also suggesting that the endocannabinoid system itself is an ancient mechanism in evolutionary terms…

“However, our more global understanding of the role endocannabinoid system play in regulating behavior and mental disease is just beginning. The endocannabinoid system is thought to be involved in regulating over-excitability and promoting synaptic homeostasis.”



10. Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease   / Br J Pharmacol. 2011 August



“Previous findings have indicated that a cannabinoid, such as Δ9-THCV, which has antioxidant properties and the ability to activate CB2 receptors but to block CB1, might be a promising therapy for alleviating symptoms and delaying neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease.”


This post is dedicated to Peter McWilliams.
Cannabis Is Medicine — Prohibition Does Not Work!    Former NYPD cop, former high school health teacher, the unstoppable “Captain Cannabinoid” aka Captain Cannabis, Ron Marczyk, R.N., Toke Signals columnist

Editor’s note: Ron Marczyk — Captain Cannabinoid — is a retired high school health education teacher who taught Wellness and Disease Prevention, Drug and Sex Education, and AIDS Education to teens aged 13-17.

 He also taught a high school International Baccalaureate psychology course. He taught in a New York City public school as a Drug Prevention Specialist.

He is a Registered NurseRegistered Nursearrow-10x10.png with six years of ER/Critical Care experience in NYC hospitals, earned an M.S. in cardiac rehabilitation and exercise physiology, and worked as a New York City police officer for two years.

Edited by lethe, 06 April 2014 - 03:06 PM.

#230 lethe


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Posted 06 April 2014 - 04:16 AM

#231 lethe


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Posted 07 April 2014 - 02:26 PM


#232 lethe


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Posted 08 April 2014 - 06:20 PM

#233 lethe


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Posted 12 April 2014 - 09:19 PM

#234 lethe


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Posted 12 April 2014 - 09:33 PM


#235 lethe


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Posted 12 April 2014 - 09:34 PM

#236 Bills



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Posted 14 April 2014 - 08:48 PM

idk if i have PD... i suffer from twitching fingers, mainly thumb and index finger daily... also feel unsteady on my feet.... i recently smoked weed and it made my symptoms worse, the twitching was almost constant.

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