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Viartis

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  1. ALPHA SYNUCLEIN Iron accumulation can occur as a result of Parkinson's Disease when L-dopa is formed insufficiently. Alpha-synuclein aggregation is often accompanied by abnormal accumulation of iron, which also increases the aggregation of alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein expression is regulated by iron mainly at the translational level. The superoxide anion can also be produced as a result of Parkinson's Disease when L-dopa is formed insufficiently. Superoxide is broken down to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the enzyme Superoxide Dismutase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a dominant role in the aggregation of alpha-synuclein. So it is Parkinson's Disease, due to insufficient formation of L-dopa, that causes the aggregation of alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein inhibits tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, which is the enzyme needed to form dopamine, which is essential for the relief of Parkinson's Disease. So when alpha-synuclein is inadvertently produced, it can worsen Parkinson's Disease symptoms even further by reducing dopamine biosynthesis.
  2. CELL LOSS Although it is often claimed that there is a massive loss of the dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's Disease, no studies have ever shown this to be true. Studies making such claims have measured the enzyme activity of the dopaminergic neurons instead of the loss of the dopaminergic neurons. Enzyme activity determines the activity of the cells not the number of cells. Research has always shown that there is a major reduction in cell activity in people with Parkinson's Disease rather than an actual major loss of the cells involved in Parkinson's Disease. The dopaminergic neurons are one of only four cell types that can not reproduce in adults. However, when compared to people of a similar age, there is hardly any difference in the number of dopaminergic neurons in people with Parkinson's Disease. There is also no difference in the volume of the relevant part of the brain either. The volume of the part of the brain in which dopaminergic neurons are common does not decline as Parkinson's Disease gets worse as it would if there was a loss of these cells. People with Parkinson's Disease do not differ in this way from those people who do not have Parkinson's Disease. Neuropathology [1999] 19 (1) : 10-13 (T.Fukuda, J.Takahashi, J. Tanaka) Movement Disorders [2005] 20 (2) : 164-171 (K.M.Pedersen, L. Marner, H.Pakkenberg, B.Pakkenberg) JAMA Neurology [2013] 70 (2) : 241-247 (D.A.Ziegler, J.S. Wonderlick, P.Ashourian, L.A.Hansen, J.C.Young, A.J. Murphy, C.K. Koppuzha, J.H.Growdon, S.Corkin) Brain [2013] 136 (Part : 2419-2431 (J.H.Kordower, C.W. Olanow, H.B.Dodiya, Y.Chu, T.G.Beach, C.H.Adler, G.M.Halliday, R. T.Bartus)
  3. Brett added these two books that you refer to. I added THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO PARKINSON'S DISEASE https://www.amazon.com/dp/1906421056
  4. Parksinson's Disease is caused by insufficient dopamine, which is why all the major treatments aim at increasing dopamine formation and activity. Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the brain. That is where the fault is. Dopamine deficiency doesn't travel around the body from the gut as the gut studies imply.
  5. Most scientific studies are not totally conclusive. So there is usually a degree of uncertainty with all of them.
  6. As it has only just become available it's too early for reviews. Most of the big publishers habitually pay people for favourable book reviews, even before the books are published. The reviewers often haven't even read the book. So you have to be wary of many but not all book reviews on Amazon. The price is above average because the size of the book at around 800 pages instead of around 200 pages is way above the norm. Books are normally priced according to number of pages and whether or not there are colour pages, which increases the price a lot.
  7. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH Symptoms : Parkinson's Disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities that can favour the occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can lead to the following symptoms : abdominal bloating and distension, excess gas, abdominal pain, and diarrhea or sometimes chronic constipation [1]. Prevalence : Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth occurs in somewhere between 30% and over half of all people with Parkinson's Disease in contrast to only 8% to 10% of people that do not have Parkinson's Disease. It is very significantly related to the severity of Parkinson's Disease [1, 2]. Causes of symptoms : In Parkinson's Disease there is an increased contraction of the colon [3], and prolonged passage through the small intestine [4]. The occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's Disease could therefore be due to gastrointestinal motility abnormalities leaving bacteria for longer in the intestines [1]. [1] Movement Disorders [2011] 26 (5) : 889-892 (M.Gabrielli, P. Bonazzi, E.Scarpellini, E.Bendia, E.C.Lauritano, A.Fasano, M.G. Ceravolo, M.Capecci, A.Rita Bentivoglio, L.Provinciali, et al) [2] Journal of Neural Transmission [2016] Sep 2 [Epub ahead of print] (X.L.Niu, L.Liu, Z.X.Song, Q.Li, Z.H.Wang, J.L.Zhang, H.H.Li) [3] Experimental Neurology [2007] 207 (1) : 4-12 (G.Anderson, A.R. Noorian, G.Taylor, M.Anitha, D.Bernhard, S.Srinivasan, J.G.Greene) [4] Journal of Neural Transmission [2015] 122 (12) : 1659-1661 (J. Dutkiewicz, S.Szlufik, M.Nieciecki, I.Charzynska, L.Królicki, P. Smektala, A.Friedman) Bacteria doesn't cause Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's Disease causes bacteria to occur in the gut.
  8. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH Symptoms : Parkinson's Disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities that can favour the occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can lead to the following symptoms : abdominal bloating and distension, excess gas, abdominal pain, and diarrhea or sometimes chronic constipation [1]. Prevalence : Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth occurs in somewhere between 30% and over half of all people with Parkinson's Disease in contrast to only 8% to 10% of people that do not have Parkinson's Disease. It is very significantly related to the severity of Parkinson's Disease [1, 2]. Causes of symptoms : In Parkinson's Disease there is an increased contraction of the colon [3], and prolonged passage through the small intestine [4]. The occurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's Disease could therefore be due to gastrointestinal motility abnormalities leaving bacteria for longer in the intestines [1]. [1] Movement Disorders [2011] 26 (5) : 889-892 (M.Gabrielli, P. Bonazzi, E.Scarpellini, E.Bendia, E.C.Lauritano, A.Fasano, M.G. Ceravolo, M.Capecci, A.Rita Bentivoglio, L.Provinciali, et al) [2] Journal of Neural Transmission [2016] Sep 2 [Epub ahead of print] (X.L.Niu, L.Liu, Z.X.Song, Q.Li, Z.H.Wang, J.L.Zhang, H.H.Li) [3] Experimental Neurology [2007] 207 (1) : 4-12 (G.Anderson, A.R. Noorian, G.Taylor, M.Anitha, D.Bernhard, S.Srinivasan, J.G.Greene) [4] Journal of Neural Transmission [2015] 122 (12) : 1659-1661 (J. Dutkiewicz, S.Szlufik, M.Nieciecki, I.Charzynska, L.Królicki, P. Smektala, A.Friedman) Bacteria doesn't cause Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's Disease causes bacteria to occur in the gut.
  9. THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO PARKINSON'S DISEASE has a publication date of 2nd February but has been released and is already available https://www.amazon.com/dp/1906421056 THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO PARKINSON'S DISEASE, which is fully referenced throughout, is by far the most comprehensive and extensive book concerning Parkinson's Disease. SECTION 1 HISTORY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 1 (The history of Parkinson's Disease - includes descriptions of it in ancient India, ancient China, the Bible, ancient Greece, ancient Rome, in medieval history, and during the 16th, 17th, 18th and recent centuries), Chapter 2 (Famous people with Parkinson's Disease) SECTION 2 PREVALENCE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 3 (Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease - the world's highest prevalence, the world's lowest prevalence, prevalence rates by country, incidence rates by country, age distribution, gender differences, and occupational differences) SECTION 3 BIOCHEMISTRY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 4 (Dopamine biosynthesis), Chapter 5 (Coenzyme biosynthesis), Chapter 6 (Iron metabolism), Chapter 7 (Zinc metabolism), Chapter 8 (Manganese metabolism), Chapter 9 (Dopamine receptors), Chapter 10 (G proteins), Chapter 11 (Dopamine receptor phosphoprotein) SECTION 4 CYTOLOGY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 12 (Dopaminergic neurons), Chapter 13 (Cytological effects - superoxide anion, neuromelanin formation, iron accumulation, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, and the formation of Lewy bodies) SECTION 5 ANATOMY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 14 (Dopaminergic neuronal groups), Chapter 15 (Anatomical effects - on each system in the body) SECTION 6 PHYSIOLOGY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 16 (Dopaminergic pathways), Chapter 17 (Physiological effects - on each system in the body) SECTION 7 SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE (symptoms, prevalence, causes of symptoms): Chapter 18 (Primary symptoms), Chapter 19 (Symptom progression), Chapter 20 (Muscular system), Chapter 21 (Nervous system), Chapter 22 (Alimentary system), Chapter 23 (Urinary system), Chapter 24 (Cardiovascular system), Chapter 25 (Respiratory system), Chapter 26 (Skeletal system), Chapter 27 (Integumentary system), Chapter 28 (Sensory system), Chapter 29 (Endocrine system), Chapter 30 (Reproductive system), Chapter 31 (Immune system) SECTION 8 DIAGNOSIS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 32 (Observational methods), Chapter 33 (Technological methods), Chapter 34 (Chemical methods) SECTION 9 CAUSES OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Chapter 35 (Biochemical causes), Chapter 36 (Toxic causes - the chemistry, common sources, means of toxicity, symptoms of each of the toxic causes), Chapter 37 (Genetic causes - the gene, chromosome, biochemical function, type of inheritance, symptoms, prevalence, genetic tests for each of the 40 known genetic causes), Chapter 38 (Pharmacological causes - their pharmacology, adverse effects, causes of symptoms of all the pharmacological causes), Chapter 39 (Medical causes - the pathophysiology, symptoms, causes of symptoms of all the medical disorders that can cause Parkinson's Disease symptoms) SECTION 10 TREATMENTS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE (their pharmacology, biochemistry, symptoms, causes of symptoms): Chapter 40 (Biochemical treatment), Chapter 41 (L-dopa), Chapter 42 (Dopamine agonists), Chapter 43 (MAO inhibitors), Chapter 44 (COMT inhibitors), Chapter 45 (Anti-cholinergics), Chapter 46 (Non-dopaminergic), Chapter 47 (Surgical treatments), Chapter 48 (Natural treatments), Chapter 49 (Exercise methods), Chapter 50 (Technological methods) APPENDIX: Appendix 1 (Parkinson's Disease organisations), Appendix 2 (Parkinson's Disease web sites), Appendix 3 (Parkinson's Disease nursing books)
  10. THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO PARKINSON'S DISEASE includes every treatment for Parkinson's Disease, including all those that are presently available and all those that are presently being researched and developed : https://www.amazon.com/dp/1906421056
  11. THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO PARKINSON'S DISEASE, which is fully referenced throughout, is by far the most comprehensive and extensive book concerning Parkinson's Disease : https://www.amazon.com/dp/1906421056
  12. There is a white background version for every Parkinson's Disease news article where it states "CLICK HERE FOR A PRINTABLE OR WHITE BACKGROUND VERSION OF THIS ARTICLE"
  13. Parkinson's Disease News covers all significant new research, reports, books, and resources concerning Parkinson's Disease. http://viartis.net/parkinsons.disease/news.htm
  14. Dopavite is a Parkinson's Disease supplement. It can be added to existing methods of treating Parkinson's Disease. People have been ridding their symptoms using it without causing any side effects.
  15. Breakthroughs ! What breakthroughs ? After thousands of years of describing and treating Parkinson's Disease, and despite the enormous resources used in developing new treatments, each method of treating Parkinson's Disease has been found to have serious inadequacies. They have all had either an unsound or only partially sound scientific basis. They have been aimed mostly at alleviating the symptoms in the short term rather than dealing with the cause. The treatments recently being developed for treating Parkinson's Disease have become progressively more diverse and scientifically unsound. None of them have resulted in even one person being rid of Parkinson's Disease.