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lethe

medical marijuana

740 posts in this topic

http://tinyurl.com/3hmbzl3

 

Eating Disorders Tied to Absence of Brain Cannabinoids

By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor

Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on November 1, 2011

 

New research suggests that a brain malfunction that leads to deficits in endocannabinoids may contribute to anorexia nervosa and bulimia.

 

Endocannabinoids are substances made by the brain that affect brain function and chemistry in ways that resemble the effects of cannabis derivatives, including marijuana and hashish.

 

These drugs are often used recreationally and are well known to influence appetite, i.e. causing hunger or the “munchies.”

 

Accordingly, deficits in this brain system would logically be associated with reduced appetite.

 

In the study reported in Biological Psychiatry, researchers measured the status of the endocannabinoid system indirectly by determining whether there was an increase or decrease in the density of endocannabinoid receptors, called the CB1 receptor.

 

They used positron emission tomography, or PET, imaging to study several brain regions. Then, they compared these densities in women with anorexia or bulimia with those of healthy women.

 

Upon analysis, researchers found evidence of deficits in endocannabinoid levels or reduced CB1 receptor function in the brains of women with anorexia nervosa. CB1R availability was also increased in the brain region called the insula in both anorexia and bulimia patients.

 

The insula “is a region that integrates body perception, gustatory information, reward and emotion, functions known to be disturbed in these patients,” explained Dr. Koen Van Laere, the study’s lead author.

 

“The role of endocannabinoids in appetite control is clearly important. These new data point to important connections between this system and eating disorders,” added Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry.

 

Additional research is now needed to establish whether the observed changes are caused by the disease or whether these are neurochemical alterations that serve as risk factors for developing an eating disorder.

 

Researchers hope the findings may lead to a potential new target for developing drugs to treat eating disorders – a practice that is currently being investigated in animal models.

 

APA Reference

Nauert PhD, R. (2011). Eating Disorders Tied to Absence of Brain Cannabinoids. Psych Central. Retrieved on November 6, 2011, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/11/01/eating-disorders-tied-to-absence-of-brain-cannabinoids/30929.html

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Let's treat it like a pharmaceutical

 

I am all new therapies (including medical marijuana), but I think it needs just as rigorous examination as ANY medicine. I don't agree with the author 100%, but have highlighted some valuable points.

 

http://voices.washingtonpost.com/postpartisan/2009/10/medical_marijuana_is_an_insult.html

 

The Justice Department says it's backing off the prosecution of people who smoke pot or sell it in compliance with state laws that permit "medical marijuana." Attorney General Eric Holder says "it will not be a priority to use federal resources to prosecute patients with serious illnesses or their caregivers." Party hardy! I mean -- let the healing begin!

 

I don't think the federal government should be spending a whole lot of time on small-time druggies, and I'm undecided about legalizing pot, which enjoys 44 percent support among the general public, according to a recent poll. Recreational use is not the wisest thing -- and if my 12-year-old son is reading this, that means you! -- but it's no more harmful than other drugs (e.g., alcohol) and impossible to eradicate. On the other hand, I worry it's a gateway to harder stuff. So I think we probably should have an open debate about decriminalization.

 

But it should be a real debate, about real decriminalization, and not clouded -- pardon the expression -- by hokum about "medical marijuana." To the extent it puts the attorney general's imprimatur on the notion that people are getting pot from "caregivers" to deal "with serious illnesses" -- as opposed to growing their own or flocking to "dispensaries" just to get high -- the Justice Department's move is not so constructive.

 

I do not deny that for some people, including some terminal cancer patients and pain-wracked AIDS sufferers, marijuana is a blessed relief. Let 'em smoke, I say, just as the Justice Department has usually ignored such cases since long before Holder spoke up. But if you believe there is any scientific evidence that smoked marijuana has the multiplicity of therapeutic uses that advocates claim -- well, I've got a bag of oregano I'd like to sell you.

 

Usually, drugs have to pass exacting testing by the Food and Drug Administration before they go on the market. There's a good reason for this: we don't want people spending money on products that might be ineffective or actually harmful. In California and elsewhere, however, snake oil -- sorry, "medical marijuana" -- got on the market via a different route: popular referendum. The pot for sale in dispensaries is subject to none of the purity controls that actual pharmaceutical drugs must meet. Indeed, the new DOJ policy essentially recognizes a gray market for pot, leaving these supposedly seriously ill people at the mercy of their dealers -- I mean caregivers -- with respect to quality and efficacy.

 

What other substances should we handle this way? Cocaine? Laetrile? Didn't President Obama just sign a bill authorizing the FDA to regulate the nicotine content of tobacco? And I thought he promised to "restore science to its rightful place."

 

Under California's law, you don't even need a prescription to get pot (which would admittedly have been a problem, since the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency controls who gets a prescription pad, and not many doctors would use theirs to prescribe an illegal drug). All it takes is a "written or oral recommendation" from a physician.

 

A few years ago, a California woman called Angel Raich took her defense of medical pot all the way to the Supreme Court. She lost on the legal issue, which had nothing to do with the medical effectiveness of pot. Along the way, though, she claimed that she was suffering from "life-threatening" weight loss (due to a chronic inability to hold down food, which her doctors could not explain). She also cited chronic pain from scoliosis, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, bruxism, endometriosis, headache, rotator cuff syndrome, uterine fibroids, and Schwannoma. The Latin names of these latter conditions might have snowed some judges, but physicians recognized each of them as a common, non-life-threatening problem for which conventional treatments were available. Raich listed a cornucopia of potent drugs, from Vicodin to Methadone, that she had tried previously and gotten no satisfaction.

 

This is not an isolated instance. According to a survey by NORML, the pro-"medical marijuana" organization, which can be expected to emphasize the desperate health of users, only 22 percent of California medical marijuana users suffer from AIDS-related disease. Most of the rest have more subjective maladies such as "chronic pain" or "mood disorders."

 

Raich's physician was Frank Lucido, a well-known Berkeley doctor and pro-pot activist -- he also makes money as an expert witness on "medical marijuana" -- whose Web site boasts that he was "investigated by the Medical Practices Board of California for cannabis evaluation practices in 2003, and fully exonerated." The case involved his recommendation of marijuana to treat attention deficit disorder in a 16-year-old boy, but, as I say, he was fully exonerated.

 

In a brilliant article (requires subscription) on this subject in the Hastings Center Report, a bioethics journal, lawyer and anesthesiologist Peter J. Cohen noted that "medical marijuana" groups have been notably passive about demanding FDA testing and approval for this purported elixir. Instead, they took their case to the people. As Cohen argued, this is no way to make health policy: "medical marijuana," he wrote, should be "subjected to the same scientific scrutiny as any drug proposed for use in medical therapy, rather than made legal for medical use by popular will." The "medical marijuana" movement may not be a threat to our civilization, but it is an insult to our intelligence.

Edited by Eric H

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The active ingredient in MM is already available by prescription. Why aren't we fighting for alternative uses of Marinol? It already has FDA approval for certain conditions, seeking New Use Approval for an existing drug will have a much quicker time-to-market for consumers.

 

Dronabinol is a cannabinoid , and the active ingredient in MARINOL® Capsules, is synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is also a naturally occurring component of Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana). MARINOL (dronabinol) comes in either 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg capsules.

 

We ALREADY have legal THC. Why the fight for the plant?

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The active ingredient in MM is already available by prescription. Why aren't we fighting for alternative uses of Marinol? It already has FDA approval for certain conditions, seeking New Use Approval for an existing drug will have a much quicker time-to-market for consumers.

 

Dronabinol is a cannabinoid , and the active ingredient in MARINOL® Capsules, is synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is also a naturally occurring component of Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana). MARINOL (dronabinol) comes in either 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg capsules.

 

We ALREADY have legal THC. Why the fight for the plant?

 

Let me start with the Definition of SYNTHETIC from merriam-webster.com

 

"of, relating to, or produced by chemical or biochemical synthesis; especially : produced artificially <synthetic drugs>"

 

Let me continue with the U.S. National Library of Medicine's publication on Dronabinol (This is just the part about precautions and side effects etc.)

 

What special precautions should I follow?

 

Before taking dronabinol,

 

* tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to dronabinol, other cannabinoids such as nabilone (Cesamet) or marijuana (cannabis), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in dronabinol capsules, including sesame oil. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.

 

* tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: amphetamines such as amphetamine (in Adderall), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, in Adderall), and methamphetamine (Desoxyn); atropine (Atropen, in Hycodan, in Lomotil, in Tussigon); anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin); antidepressants, including amitriptyline (in Limbitrol), amoxapine, and desipramine (Norpramin); antihistamines; barbiturates including phenobarbital (Luminal) and secobarbital (Seconal, in Tuinal); buspirone (BuSpar); diazepam (Valium); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); disulfiram (Antabuse); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem); ipratropium (Atrovent); lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid); medications for anxiety, asthma, colds, irritable bowel disease, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary problems; muscle relaxants; naltrexone (Revia, Vivitrol); narcotic medications for pain; propranolol (Inderal); scopolamine (Transderm-Scop); sedatives; sleeping pills; tranquilizers; and theophylline (TheoDur, Theochron, Theolair). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects. Many other medications may also interact with dronabinol, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list.

 

* tell your doctor if you use or have ever used marijuana or other street drugs and if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart disease, high blood pressure, seizures, dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and that may cause changes in mood and personality), or a mental illness such as mania (frenzied or abnormally excited mood), depression (feelings of hopelessness, loss of energy and/or loss of interest in doing previously enjoyable activities) or schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking and strong or inappropriate emotions).

 

* tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking dronabinol, call your doctor. Do not breast-feed while you are taking dronabinol.

 

* if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking dronabinol.

 

* you should know that dronabinol may make you drowsy and may cause changes in your mood, thinking, memory, judgment, or behavior, especially at the beginning of your treatment. You will need to be supervised by a responsible adult when you first begin taking dronabinol and whenever your dose is increased. Do not drive a car, operate machinery or do any other activity that requires mental alertness until you know how this medication affects you.

 

* do not drink alcoholic beverages while you are taking dronabinol. Alcohol can make the side effects from dronabinol worse.

 

* you should know that dronabinol may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up too quickly from a lying position. This may be more common when you first start taking dronabinol. To avoid this problem, get out of bed slowly, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up.

 

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

 

Talk to your doctor or nutritionist and read the manufacturer's information for the patient to find out about ways to encourage yourself to eat when your appetite is poor and about which types of foods are the best choices for you.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

 

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

What side effects can this medication cause?

 

Dronabinol may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

 

* weakness

* sudden warm feeling

* stomach pain

* nausea

* vomiting

* memory loss

* anxiety

* confusion

* dizziness

* unsteady walking

* feeling like you are outside of your body

* ''high'' or elevated mood

* hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)

* sleepiness

* strange or unusual thoughts

 

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

 

* seizures

* fast or pounding heartbeat

 

Dronabinol may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

 

 

Store dronabinol in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how many capsules are left so you will know if any are missing.

In case of emergency/overdose

 

In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.

 

Symptoms of overdose may include:

 

* drowsiness

* inappropriate happiness

* sharper senses than usual

* changed awareness of time

* red eyes

* fast heartbeat

* memory problems

* feeling that you are outside of your body

* mood changes

* difficulty urinating

* constipation

* decreased coordination

* extreme tiredness

* difficulty speaking clearly

* dizziness or fainting when standing up too fast

 

Other names

 

* Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

* delta-9-THC

 

Brand names

 

* Marinol

 

 

Manufacturer/Pricing .

 

Manufacturer: Abbott Laboratories

 

DEA/FDA: Schedule III

Approximate Retail Price

 

from www.drugstore.com

 

capsule:

 

* 2.5 mg (30 ea): $238.99

* 5 mg (90 ea): $1,364.04

* 10 mg (30 ea): $867.55

 

 

Personally I can't understand why a synthetic drug like Marinol would be any 'safer' than an natural herb that I could grow organically in my greenhouse.

Another problem I have with Marinol is the cost. If medical marijuana were to become a reality, someone stands to lose a lot of money. Hmmm wonder how much

that has to do with all of the mis-information fed to us about the use of marijuana?

 

For the record, I don't smoke the stuff nor have I grown it. I would do both if it were legal and helpful in easing the problems associated with the diseases I battle.

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Lethe,

 

Have you ever came across information on how much the DEA spends on eradication of Marijuana in the US? Also how much is spent on incarceration of users in the US?

I was curious about it but haven't been able to find any concrete estimates of the costs from a reliable source.

 

Thanks,

Cynthia

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Let's treat it like a pharmaceutical

I am all new therapies (including medical marijuana), but I think it needs just as rigorous examination as ANY medicine. I don't agree with the author 100%, but have highlighted some valuable points.

http://voices.washingtonpost.com/postpartisan/2009/10/medical_marijuana_is_an_insult.html

[/b]

 

(begin quote)

"I don't think the federal government should be spending a whole lot of time on small-time druggies, and I'm undecided about legalizing pot, which enjoys 44 percent support among the general public, according to a recent poll. Recreational use is not the wisest thing -- and if my 12-year-old son is reading this, that means you! -- but it's no more harmful than other drugs (e.g., alcohol) and impossible to eradicate. On the other hand, I worry it's a gateway to harder stuff. So I think we probably should have an open debate about decriminalization."

(end quote)

 

So if it’s no more harmful than other drugs and is impossible to eradicate, why the reluctance to legalize? It should be a basic right. It is widely available and many more people smoke it regularly than will admit it. And it’s been shown not to be a gateway - more likely ciggerettes and booze. By legalizing it the govt gets control and takes it out of the hands of organized crime, not to ,mention taxing it. It ridiculous not to.

 

 

(begin quote)

"I do not deny that for some people, including some terminal cancer patients and pain-wracked AIDS sufferers, marijuana is a blessed relief. Let 'em smoke, I say, just as the Justice Department has usually ignored such cases since long before Holder spoke up. But if you believe there is any scientific evidence that smoked marijuana has the multiplicity of therapeutic uses that advocates claim -- well, I've got a bag of oregano I'd like to sell you."

(end quote)

 

Now this is what really bugs me.... this guy saying there is no evidence of a variety of therapeutic uses and this is the crux of the problem. Even though the govt has suppressed research, in the last 20 years there has been incredible discoveries regarding cannibinols etc. - read this thread from the start - but you have to look for them. It hilarious when someone talks so authoritatively, and yet more than likely has not done any research (reading) whatsoever, just dismissing something outright because it’s beyond their belief system.

Even if you showed him solid scientific evidence he wouldn’t believe it.

 

I’ve seen and felt the amazing relief MM brings so many of my symptoms.

 

(begin quote)

"Usually, drugs have to pass exacting testing by the Food and Drug Administration before they go on the market. There's a good reason for this: we don't want people spending money on products that might be ineffective or actually harmful. In California and elsewhere, however, snake oil -- sorry, "medical marijuana" -- got on the market via a different route: popular referendum. The pot for sale in dispensaries is subject to none of the purity controls that actual pharmaceutical drugs must meet. Indeed, the new DOJ policy essentially recognizes a gray market for pot, leaving these supposedly seriously ill people at the mercy of their dealers -- I mean caregivers -- with respect to quality and efficacy."

(end quote)

 

 

Anyone who believes the FDA or Health Canada is looking after their health interests is naive as they are both in bed with big pharma. Health Canada has only one type of “legal”MM, which they grind with stock and seeds! The compassion center I go to knows the growers and inspects grow facilities when possible.

 

(begin quote)

"This is not an isolated instance. According to a survey by NORML, the pro-"medical marijuana" organization, which can be expected to emphasize the desperate health of users, only 22 percent of California medical marijuana users suffer from AIDS-related disease. Most of the rest have more subjective maladies such as "chronic pain" or "mood disorders."

 

So what’s wrong with MM for pain or depression? Save it only for extreme cases? Ridiculious.... it’s a harmless plant!!

 

(begin quote)

"In a brilliant article (requires subscription) on this subject in the Hastings Center Report, a bioethics journal, lawyer and anesthesiologist Peter J. Cohen noted that "medical marijuana" groups have been notably passive about demanding FDA testing and approval for this purported elixir. Instead, they took their case to the people. As Cohen argued, this is no way to make health policy: "medical marijuana," he wrote, should be "subjected to the same scientific scrutiny as any drug proposed for use in medical therapy, rather than made legal for medical use by popular will."

(end quote)

 

The reason for letting the people decide is because it’s impossible to testing when the govt refuses to grant researchers the raw material. As for drug policy, FDA approves dangerous drugs ALL THE TIME, fudges results, and than hides the bad reactions. There are lots of books on this - Death By Prescription by Terence Young, for instance. The MM movement has always asked for testing, this argument (from a lawyer) is typically disingenuous. This is just another red herring and everyone (including the public) is sick of it.

 

Why not bypass the unnecessary and false barrier? It’s called Democracy, let the people decide, thank you.

 

If you look at everything posted in this thread you'll find relevant answers to all these issues.

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The active ingredient in MM is already available by prescription. Why aren't we fighting for alternative uses of Marinol? It already has FDA approval for certain conditions, seeking New Use Approval for an existing drug will have a much quicker time-to-market for consumers.

 

Dronabinol is a cannabinoid , and the active ingredient in MARINOL® Capsules, is synthetic delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is also a naturally occurring component of Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana). MARINOL (dronabinol) comes in either 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg capsules.

 

We ALREADY have legal THC. Why the fight for the plant?

 

If you search relevant forum sites, and in one of the films a Dr mentions, patients who take it often complain that it puts them "out of it", making them groggy. They complain it's hard to dose (titrate). The response has not been great.

 

I'd rather take a complete and natural plant that works! I trust Mother Nature. I don't trust Big Pharma, who wants us to believe that something is not medicine unless they've extracted it, patented it, and made money on it.

 

:)

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I don't trust Big Pharma, who wants us to believe that something is not medicine unless they've extracted it, patented it, and made money on it.

 

Legal pot will be big business too.

 

http://www.minyanvil...6/2011/id/35214

 

note: "A pharma-giant like Pfizer (PFE) could mass produce its own strains."

Edited by Luthersfaith

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Have you ever came across information on how much the DEA spends on eradication of Marijuana in the US? Also how much is spent on incarceration of users in the US? I was curious about it but haven't been able to find any concrete estimates of the costs from a reliable source.

 

I think I may have some stats somewhere, I'll have a look through my bookmarks. The most common figures I came across are:

 

http://tinyurl.com/3jk3pep

 

A few others:

 

http://hightimes.com/legal/ht_admin/2463

 

http://tinyurl.com/7ffftuh

Edited by lethe

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Montel Williams interviews...

 

 

 

 

 

I've always thought of Montel Williams as just a talk show host. I didn't really know anything about his background previous to seeing him on TV. I just finished watching him on Mike Huckabee's Veteran's Day show and came away pretty impressed with him.

 

For anyone else that might be interested in the background of this advocate of Medical Marijuana, here is a short version:

 

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 3, 1956, Williams enlisted in the U.S. Marines upon graduating high school in 1974. He took basic training at Parris Island, South Carolina, where he was promoted to platoon guide. After basic training, he was sent to the Desert Warfare Training Center at Twenty-nine Palms, near Palm Springs, California.

 

While at Twenty-nine Palms, his superiors became impressed with his leadership skills, and he was recommended for, and accepted to, the Naval Academy Preparatory school at Newport, Rhode Island. He completed the one-year course, and was accepted to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis.

 

When he arrived at Annapolis on July 6, 1976, he was honorably discharged as a corporal from the marines, and enlisted into the navy as a midshipman. While at Annapolis, Williams studied Mandarin Chinese and graduated with a degree in general engineering and a minor in International Security Affairs. It was at Annapolis that Williams first began to shave his head. Upon his graduation in 1980, he became the first black enlisted marine to complete and graduate both the Academy Prep School and Annapolis.

 

Commissioned an ensign, he spent the next one and a half years in Guam as a cryptologic officer for naval intelligence, where he served at sea and ashore. In 1982 he was transferred to Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, where he studied the Russian language for one year. In 1983 he was transferred to Ft. Meade in Maryland, where he worked with the National Security Agency. What Williams did there is vague, due to the sensitive nature of intelligence work, but he performed various intelligence missions. He was offshore aboard ship during the invasion of Grenada.

 

After three years aboard submarines, Williams, now a full lieutenant, was made supervising cryptologic officer with the Naval Security Fleet Support Division at Ft. Meade. It was while counseling his crew that he discovered a gift for public speaking. In 1988, he began conducting informal counseling for the wives and families of the servicemen in his command. He was later asked to speak to a local group of kids in Kansas City, MO about the importance of leadership and how to overcome obstacles on the road to success—thus beginning a three-year career in motivational speaking.

 

Williams traveled the country talking to more than three million teenagers nationwide and gave up his naval commission to pursue speaking full-time. He left the navy with the rank of lieutenant, and received the Navy Achievement Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal, and the Navy Commendation Medal. In addition, he reached out to thousands of parents, educators and business leaders, encouraging them to work together to address youth issues, trends and to inspire youngsters to reach their highest potential. These efforts to reach out to the community eventually lead to the Montel Williams Show on television.

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Legal pot will be big business too.

 

http://www.minyanvil...6/2011/id/35214

 

note: "A pharma-giant like Pfizer (PFE) could mass produce its own strains."

 

I guess that is why the U.S. government holds a patent on Cannabinoids.

You can read the entire patent at:

U.S. Patent #6630507

 

You might want to take notice of where Parkinson's Disease is mentioned in the Abstract that I copied and pasted from the Patent.

 

Abstract

 

Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention. A particular disclosed class of cannabinoids useful as neuroprotective antioxidants is formula (I) wherein the R group is independently selected from the group consisting of H, CH.sub.3, and COCH.sub.3. ##STR1##

 

The U.S. Government knows that cannabis has medical uses, because it holds a patent on some of these uses. But yet Marijuana is classified as a Schedule I drug by the U.S. DEA (along with things like heroin, PCP, and the date-rape drug GHB), which means it has no currently accepted medical use in treatment, has a high potential for abuse, and there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision. Even opium and cocaine are Schedule II.

 

More interesting reading. Taken from ( The 5 Biggest Myths About Medical Marijuana )

The same cannabis medicines that people have rediscovered in the past 15 years were used safely by millions of Americans for decades. For instance, cannabis tinctures (also known as extracts), were manufactured by pharmaceutical firms such as Parke-Davis and Eli Lilly & Co. and available in almost every corner drugstore, often without prescription, until 1937. There was no huge problem with people getting high, no outcry from the public, no problems with it whatsoever. But in the space of a week or two, suddenly this useful and safe medicine was made illegal, to the consternation of the American Medical Association.

 

As far as safety, the fact is that in all of recorded history, not a single person has ever died from the toxic effects of marijuana, because there are virtually none. In terms of statistics, it’s literally safer than water: many people have died from hyponatremia (severe electrolyte imbalance often due to too-rapid consumption of water).

 

In terms of science, it’s been estimated that, in order for someone to smoke themselves to death, they would have to smoke 1,500 pounds of marijuana in 14 minutes, and hypoxia would probably kill them before the effects of THC would.

 

But you don’t have to take my word for any of this, since the DEA asked an Administrative Law Judge, Francis L. Young, to rule on the safety and effectiveness of medical marijuana in response to a petition filed to reschedule marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule II. Here’s what the DEA’s own judge said (excerpts):

 

In strict medical terms marijuana is far safer than many foods we commonly consume. For example, eating ten raw potatoes can result in a toxic response. By comparison, it is physically impossible to eat enough marijuana to induce death.

 

Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational analysis marijuana can be safely used within a supervised routine of medical care.

 

The administrative law judge concludes that the provisions of the Act permit and require the transfer of marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule II.

 

Marijuana can be harmful. Marijuana is abused. But the same is true of dozens of drugs or substances which are listed in Schedule II so that they can be employed in treatment by physicians in proper cases, despite their abuse potential.

 

The DEA’s response? They ignored the findings of their own judge – just like Richard Nixon did when he rejected the recommendation of his own Shafer Commission to make marijuana legal again.

 

So why hasn’t it been rescheduled or legalized yet? Follow the money. The amount of money involved between Big Pharma, Federal drug enforcement grants to local law enforcement, private prisons and corruption (i.e. “corporate lobbying”) is astounding. Keeping a simple, harmless plant illegal is Big Business.

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I think I may have some stats somewhere, I'll have a look through my bookmarks. The most common figures I came across are:

 

http://tinyurl.com/3jk3pep

 

A few others:

 

http://hightimes.com/legal/ht_admin/2463

 

http://tinyurl.com/7ffftuh

 

Thanks Lethe. It appears that a huge amount is spent by my government every year on the enforcement of the prohibition of marijuana. This report from Harvard shows that approximately $13.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana. That same government prohibits a citizen like myself from using that drug for a legitimate purpose. The U.S. government is so sure about it's neuro-protective benefits that they have secured a patent on it.

 

So let's see, it would appear that the U.S. government may have spent around $13.7 Billion on trying to keep American's from using Marijuana,

anyone want to venture a guess on how much they spent on research for a cure to Parkinson's disease last year??

I bet the answer to that question will be appalling.

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http://tinyurl.com/6r9pzyq

 

Gov. Gregoire files petition to reclassify marijuana

For Immediate Release: November 30, 2011

 

OLYMPIA – Gov. Chris Gregoire today announced she filed a petition with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration asking the agency to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule 2 drug, which will allow its use for treatment – prescribed by doctors and filled by pharmacists. Gov. Lincoln Chafee (I-RI) also signed the petition.

 

The petition will require the Federal Drug Administration to conduct a new scientific review and analysis of recent advances in Cannabis research since the last time the FDA reviewed the matter in 2006.

 

“Poll after poll shows an overwhelming majority of Americans now see medical marijuana as legitimate,” Gregoire said. “Sixty percent of voters in our state said yes on a 1998 ballot measure. An ever-growing number of doctors now tell thousands of suffering patients they may find relief from the unique medicinal qualities of cannabis. There is simply no question that pharmacists could safely and reliably dispense cannabis to patients -- just as they do for other controlled and more problematic drugs.”

 

“Americans’ attitudes toward medically prescribed marijuana are changing, and medical organizations throughout the country – including the Rhode Island Medical Society and the American Medical Association – have come to recognize the potential benefits of marijuana for medical use,” Governor Chafee said. “Patients across Rhode Island and across the United States, many of whom are in tremendous pain, stand to experience some relief. Governor Gregoire and I are taking this step to urge the Federal Government to consider allowing the safe, reliable, regulated use of marijuana for patients who are suffering.”

 

Currently, the DEA classifies marijuana as a Schedule I drug. According to the DEA, drugs listed in schedule I have no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States and, therefore, may not be prescribed, administered, or dispensed for medical use. In contrast, drugs listed in schedules II-V have some accepted medical use and may be prescribed, administered, or dispensed for medical use, with controls.

 

“Sadly, patients must find their way along unfamiliar, uncertain paths to get what their doctors tell them would help – medical cannabis to relieve their suffering,” Gregoire said. “People weak and sick with cancer, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases and conditions suddenly feel like -- or in fact become – law breakers. In the year 2011, why can’t medical cannabis be prescribed by a physician and filled at the drug store just like any other medication? The answer is surprisingly simple. It can. But only if the federal government stops classifying marijuana as unsuitable for medical treatment.”

 

Gregoire added that two years ago, the American Medical Association reversed its position and now supports investigation and clinical research of cannabis for medicinal use. And The American College of Physicians recently expressed similar support. Both the Washington State Medical Association and the Washington State Pharmacy support reclassification, as do the Rhode Island Medical Society and other state medical associations.

 

The petition includes a substantive science-based report that has been peer reviewed and cites more than 700 independent references, many of which are new science since 2006. It details non-smoking methods, and describes how recent scientific developments like affordable DNA analysis supports the pharmacy model. With modern DNA analysis, it is easy to determine the plant’s beneficial compound – and with current technology readily available today, a compounding pharmacist could easily and inexpensively quantify the levels of cannabinoids, and then use the appropriate cannabis blend to create a customized medication for an individual patient.

 

Under the Controlled Substances Act, any interested party is allowed to petition to add, delete or change the schedule of a drug or other substance. When a petition is received by the DEA, the agency begins its own investigation of the drug.

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Why Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Traffic Deaths

By Maia Szalavitz Friday, December 2, 2011

 

 

States that legalize medical marijuana see fewer fatal car accidents, according to a new study, in part because people may be substituting marijuana smoking for drinking alcohol.

 

Sixteen states and the District of Columbia, have legalized medical marijuana since the mid-1990s. For the new study, economists looked at 1990-2009 government data on marijuana use and traffic deaths in the 13 states that had passed legalization laws during that time period. The data were from the National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

 

Comparing traffic deaths over time in states with and without medical marijuana law changes, the researchers found that fatal car wrecks dropped by 9% in states that legalized medical use — which was largely attributable to a decline in drunk driving. The researchers controlled for other factors like changes in driving laws and the number of miles driven that could affect the results.

 

Medical marijuana laws were not significantly linked with changes in daytime crash rates or those that didn't involve alcohol. But the rate of fatal crashes in which a driver had consumed any alcohol dropped 12% after medical marijuana was legalized, and crashes involving high levels of alcohol consumption fell 14%.

 

MORE: Study: Legal Medical Marijuana Doesn't Encourage Kids to Smoke More Pot

 

The authors found that medical marijuana laws reduced crashes in more men than women—by 13% compared to 9%— in line with data showing that men are more likely to register as medical marijuana users than women.

 

The overall reduction in traffic deaths was comparable to that seen after the national minimum drinking age was raised to 21, the authors note.

 

"We were astounded by how little is known about the effects of legalizing medical marijuana," lead author Daniel Rees, professor of economics at the University of Colorado-Denver, said in a statement. "We looked into traffic fatalities because there is good data, and the data allow us to test whether alcohol was a factor. ... Traffic fatalities are an important outcome from a policy perspective because they represent the leading cause of death among Americans ages 5 to 34."

 

The authors also found that in states that legalized medical use, there was no increase in marijuana smoking by teenagers — a finding seen in other studies as well. But, in many cases, the laws were linked with an increase in marijuana smoking among adults in their 20s; this rise was accompanied by a reduction in alcohol use by college age youth, suggesting that they were smoking weed instead.

 

Studies have consistently found that while mixing either marijuana or alcohol with driving is unadvisable, driving high is much safer than driving drunk. Research on stoned driving is inconsistent, with some studies finding impairment and others not; the alcohol data, however, is clear in establishing a link between drinking and significant deterioration in driving skills. The data also consistently shows that using both drugs together is worst of all.

 

MORE: Study: Whites More Likely to Abuse Drugs Than Blacks

 

Driving under the influence of marijuana seems to be less risky because people who are high tend to be aware that they are impaired and compensate, while alcohol tends to increase recklessness and create false confidence. Also, people are more likely to smoke weed at home or in private, rather than out at bars or other public events that require driving to get to.

 

The research was published by IZA, a nonprofit labor research organization associated with the University of Bonn in Germany. It is a working paper, which means it has not yet been subjected to peer review.

 

Maia Szalavitz is a health writer at TIME.com. Find her on Twitter at @maiasz. You can also continue the discussion on TIME Healthland's Facebook page and on Twitter at @TIMEHealthland.

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Study: Legal Medical Marijuana Doesn't Encourage Kids to Smoke More Pot

By Maia Szalavitz Thursday, November 3, 2011

 

Despite warnings from opponents of medical marijuana, legalizing the drug for medical purposes does not encourage teens to smoke more pot, according to new research that compared rates of marijuana use in Massachusetts and Rhode Island after the latter state changed its laws.

 

Rhode Island legalized medical marijuana in 2006, but Massachusetts did not. "We wanted to pair these two states because they have so much in common culturally and geographically," says Dr. Esther Choo, assistant professor of emergency medicine at Brown University's Warren Alpert Medical School and emergency medicine physician at Rhode Island Hospital.

 

Choo's analysis used data collected from 1997 to 2009 for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's annual Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The analysis involved nearly 13,000 youth in Rhode Island and about 25,000 in Massachusetts. In each state in any given year, the study found, about 30% of youth reported using marijuana at least once in the previous month.

 

In other words, while marijuana use was common, there was no significant difference in rates of pot use between the years before and after legalization in Rhode Island. "We found no effect of the policy change," says Choo.

 

PHOTOS: Inside Colorado's Marijuana Industry

 

These results are consistent with a 2005 analysis conducted by Mitch Earleywine, associate professor of psychology at the State University of New York–Albany, for the Marijuana Policy Project. He found that between 1996 — when California passed its medical marijuana law — and 2004, previous-month pot use by ninth graders declined by 47%. That was a slightly steeper decline than seen nationally during the same period, and Earleywine found a similar effect in all of the medical marijuana states he studied.

 

Of the new study, Earleywine says, it is "very careful about potential covariates and looks closely at a couple of states across time in a way that my work didn't." He adds: "Of course, I'm delighted to see that their work confirms my previous report that medical marijuana laws do not increase teen use."

 

Although legalizing medical marijuana may increase access for some, Choo notes that it is typically a very small population who uses marijuana for therapy — and these aren't people whom teens are likely to emulate. "Whether they are taking it for pain or for vomiting control or appetite, this is not a group we think of as superinspiring for young people to take up their drug pattern. It's an older population who is generally very ill," says Choo.

 

PHOTOS: Stoner Cinema: Pot Movie Classics

 

It's important to note that neither Choo's nor Earleywine's analyses have been subjected to peer review. Choo's work was presented on Wednesday at the American Public Health Association's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. She is planning to do further analysis, including data from additional states, for future publication.

 

But both studies are consistent with state and international data showing similar trends. Research has found that rates of youth drug use don't correlate with marijuana arrests or, at the other end of the spectrum, total decriminalization of marijuana possession.

 

Could it be possible that associating pot with uncool old people and making it legitimate, rather than rebellious, actually deters use by youth?

 

MORE: Obama's Misguided Crackdown on Medical Marijuana

 

Maia Szalavitz is a health writer at TIME.com. Find her on Twitter at @maiasz. You can also continue the discussion on TIME Healthland's Facebook page and on Twitter at @TIMEHealthland.

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Could it be possible that associating pot with uncool old people and making it legitimate, rather than rebellious, actually deters use by youth?

 

 

lol...lmfo

 

I suspect that if pot is legalized advertisements for it will be just like booze commercials... skinny babes and cool dudes. No reality at all.

Edited by Luthersfaith

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http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/waiting-to-inhale/

 

Please watch this excellent film....

 

Waiting to Inhale

 

"What’s striking from the social stand point is how much more harshly we deal with marijuana than alcohol. Clearly alcohol causes more deaths, it causes more injuries, it makes peoples’ judgment impaired more than marijuana.

 

Waiting to Inhale examines the heated debate over marijuana and its use as medicine in the United States. Twelve states have passed legislation to protect patients who use medical marijuana. Yet opponents claim the medical argument is just a smokescreen for a different agenda – to legalize marijuana for recreation and profit. What claims are being made, and what are the stakes? Waiting to Inhale takes viewers inside the lives of patients who have been forever changed by illness—and parents who lost their children to addiction. Is marijuana really a gateway drug?

 

What evidence is there to support the claim that marijuana can alleviate some of the devastating symptoms of AIDS, cancer and multiple sclerosis? Waiting to Inhale sheds new light on this controversy and presents shocking new evidence that marijuana could hold a big stake in the future of medicine."

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http://tinyurl.com/8xlnedl

 

The Future of Sativas - African Strains

 

Marijuana has taken quantum leaps since your parents were smoking grass back in the day. Strains from the 60s and 70s had THC counts with such low potency that cannabis connoisseurs would (and do) simply scoff at this day and age. Far away are the days of a dime bag actually costing a dime and all marijuana being “schwag” or “just some grass.”

 

When you open up a dispensary’s menu on WeedMaps.com or walk into a Dutch Coffeeshop, you are instantly met with a plethora of strains and options ranging from sativas to indicas to hybrids that have all sorts of different smoking profiles and THC levels. A lot of these strains have fancy or catchy names (like Snow White, Skywalker OG, the list goes on); with such an abundance of options at hand, it would lead one to believe that every known strain and cannabis seed has been discovered and cultivated. So to the naked eye, the modern landscape of marijuana strains would appear to be a rather over-saturated one.

 

However, believe it or not, there are pockets in this world that are home to some indigenous--and incredible--strains. These extremely rare and relatively unknown genetics that have either not been assimilated into North America’s (or Europe’s, for that matter) cannabis culture or simply have not yet been cultivated outside of their natural habitats.

 

Some of the countries that hold claim to such prized and pure plants are Pakistan, Afghanistan, and, the focus of this discussion--Africa. All of these countries

 

have a plethora of different types of marijuana tucked away in mountains that the average Joe Blaze would never be able get his hands on.

 

Africa is where the future of Sativas lies. It is the mothership for strains that, in due time, are going to be a huge factor in the future of medical cannabis that most people outside of the grow community have never even heard of.

 

What makes these African Sativas so special and potentially revolutionary?

 

Most people associate hazes with Sativas, which is accurate on a basic sense. Yet, most of these hazes have very low, if any, traces of THCV in them. And a common thread found in these African strains is that the active cannabinoid in them is THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin). Strains with THCV in them are extremely useful for patients suffering from diseases like Parkinson’s which makes them particularly relevant in the medicinal world of cannabis.

 

Numerous studies, mainly on lab rats but also from some human testimony, have drawn the conclusion that "Given its antioxidant properties and its ability to activate CB2 but to block CB1 receptors, Δ9-THCV has a promising pharmacological profile for delaying disease progression in PD and also for ameliorating parkinsonian symptoms."

 

In other words, yes, while THCV is certainly not a cure for Parkinson’s disease, it definitely eases the pain that those inflicted with Parkinson’s deal with.

So where exactly are these hidden strains popping up?

 

Well, you can’t exactly pinpoint their location on a map, but these types of strains are typically discovered in either mountainous terrains or equatorial ones. A couple African countries that we can definitely say host many of these FP1’s (parental/wild types that have not been tainted because of their locations) are Macato and Ghana. Niches within these lands’ mountain, along with their high, unique altitudes, give marijuana plants in these regions UV exposures that plants can simply not receive anywhere else. And that’s one of the reasons they possess such unique qualities.

 

Some of the strains (currently very unknown to the general public) brewed with these African genetics include MILF (a combination of four different African sativas), Malawi, and Power Plant. While some of the genetics found in Africa have certainly made their way out of Africa and into your local dispensary, we have only begun to scratch the surface over there.

 

Are any of these African strains ready available to the general public yet?

 

These specialized African Sativas are certainly scarce, but there is one particular African strain that can be attained at certain medical marijuana dispensaries and that strain is Durban Poison. Durban Poison is an outdoor plant indigenous to Africa that has been adapted for indoor growth. And like all of these African strains, Durban Poison is a Sativa with the active cannabinoid THCV in it. It’s also worth noting that these African Sativas differ in high from other sativa-dominant strains--they have a more cerebral or psychdelic affect along with different THC counts compared to a typical haze or Sativa. While growth periods and yields always vary based on setting, care given, and cannabis seed quality, Durban Poison Seeds have a general flowering time of about 10 weeks, growing up to 10 feet tall in the wild and up to 8 feet tall indoors with an expected yield anywhere from 8 ounces to a pound of cannabis.

 

Conclusion

 

In due time, there will likely be many exciting new Durban-esque strains coming to America. These strains, once fully assimilated into modern, mainstream cannabis culture, will complete change the landscape of sativas and alter the future of the game.

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Boy, I had no idea pasion runs this hot in a gentile thread. I do not smoke Mj but would consider the option if science could prove it's benefits. One thing for sure pills are expensive and addicting - so I cannot see an economic reason to disqualify this without proof. One thing for sure, I will not ever smoke this if it places me at risk for jail time.

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Pain relief, Dystonia and MM

 

The last few weeks have been especially difficult as I’ve been dealing with the pain from a kink in my neck and don’t sleep more than 1 or 2 hours at a time. I got a stiff neck from falling asleep improperly about 3 months ago but it started loosening up a few weeks ago, but as layer upon layer loosens I get pain, and a few times this week had difficulty and great pain getting out of bed and moving around, but I’m feeling better now and hope the worst is over.

 

On the positive side I made 2 discoveries: The first discovery is a MM strain that really works on pain, rather than masking it. Normally I don’t have that many pain issues (except for dystonia) but have found that most MM helps lessen pain indirectly- usually by lessening the focus on the pain. Recently on my MM club forum some people were saying how effective the latest batch of M-39 is. Normally I mix M-39 with other strains. Remembering this and being in exceptional pain I decided to vaporize it alone. Within 10 minutes all pain was gone, not a hint and it lasted for about 3 hours. It is called M-39 because of it’s exceptionally quick maturing - 39 days!

 

The 2nd discovery was that MM (most strains) helps alleviate dystonia. I take my last levadopa at 6 pm and don’t start again until 6 am. Anytime after 10 or 11 pm my foot may start cramping and it gets progressively worse. Normally I don’t sleep more than 3 or 4 hours a night, and so I really try not to go to sleep until 1 or 2 am so that I can sleep until close to 6am, minimizing dystonia. Up until the last month when I would get up at 4 or 5 am I would wait until 6am to vaporize MM, having it with my coffee and meds, but this month my sleep was disturbed so much and also the pain that I would medicate with MM when I got up, anytime between 1am - 5am..

 

Dystonia (levadopa responsive) causes my left foot to cramp so that I have to walk either on my toes or my heels and it gets worse until I take my pills. What I found was that within 10 minutes of vaping MM my foot would relax and I could walk normally. This lasted a few hours and the only thing that would start the dystonia again was if I started thinking stressful thoughts, but if I made a point of relaxing the dystonia would go away again. MM relaxes the cramp. It was only after realizing this that I came across this Wikipedia reference:

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dystonia

 

Medication

 

“Different medications are tried in an effort to find a combination that is effective for a specific person. Not all people will respond well to the same medications. Medications that have had positive results in some include: diphenhydramine, benzatropine, anti-Parkinsons agents ( such as trihexyphenidyl), and muscle relaxers (such as diazepam).

 

Cannabidiol, one of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in cannabis sativa, was shown in a 6-week study to have reduced dystonic symptoms in all participants by up to 20-50%.[14][15]”

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