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creatine supplements for PD

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Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra

projecting to striatum. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) exhibit decreased muscular fitness

including decreased muscle mass, muscle strength, bioenergetic capabilities and increased

fatigability. [7]


The causes for Parkinson's disease or neural-degeneration are probably related to

mitochondrial malfunction, elevated oxidative stress, apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and inflammation.

[1,3] Levodopa is a popular treatment for Parkinson's disease, but this treatment is effective for

only a few years. [1] Other treatments newly developed or under development include methyl- and

ethyl-esterified forms of L-dopa (etilevodopa and melevodopa), Glial cell line-derived

Nuerotrophic Factor (GDNF), inhibitors of enzymes such as monoamine oxidase type-B

(monoamine oxidase inhibition, eg, rasagiline, safinamide), catechol-O-methyl transferase (eg,

BIA-3202), the monoamine re-uptake mechanism (eg, brasofensine), full or partial dopamine

agonists (eg, rotigotine , sumanirole, piribedil and BP-897). [1-3]


Non-dopaminergic treatments include alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonists (eg, fipamezole),

adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (eg, istradefylline), AMPA receptor antagonists (eg,

talampanel), neuronal synchronization modulators (eg, levetiracetam) and agents that interact

with serotonergic systems such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A agonists (eg, sarizotan) and

5-HT2A antagonists (eg, quetiapine). [1-3]


Neuroprotective agents include anti-apoptotic kinase inhibitors (eg, CEP-1347), modulators of

mitochondrial function (eg, coenzyme Q10, creatine), growth factors (eg, leteprinim),

neuroimmunophilins (eg, V-10367), estrogens (eg, MITO-4509), c-synuclein oligomerization

inhibitors (eg, PAN-408), anti-inflammatory agent and sonic hedgehog ligands. [1-3]


Does gene therapy benefit patients suffered from Parkinson's Disease?

Three genes that produce dopamine were inserted into a disabled equine virus that was then

injected into the brain. Six human volunteers began clinical trials a year ago, and the results are

"extremely encouraging," as measured in control of Parkinson's symptoms and in side effects

such as brain inflammation. In a study of acaque monkeys, ProSavin, the gene therapy restored

the monkeys' levels of dopamine, corrected motor problems and prevented dyskinesias, as

jerkiness, rigidity and tremor.


Does Coenzyme Q(10) benefit Patients with Parkinson's Disease?


Coenzyme Q(10) is a key component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). It

serves as the electron acceptor for complexes I and II in the electron transport chain; it is also an

antioxidant. In Parkinson's disease, researchers found deficiency of complex I activity and

increased numbers of activated microglia in both Parkinson's disease postmortem tissue.

Researchers also found decreased levels of coenzyme Q(10) in blood and platelet mitochondria

from Parkinson's disease patients. Thus, impaired mitochondrial function and activated

microglia may both contribute to oxidative damage in Parkinson's disease. In a phase II study,

coenzyme Q(10) appeared to slow the progression of Parkinson's disease. [4]


Can non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) benefits patients with Parkinson's



Researchers found activated microglia and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in the

striatum of deceased Parkinson's disease patients. Perhaps not surprisingly, some studies have

shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduced the risk of developing

Parkinson's disease. [5]


Does creatine benefit people suffered from Parkinson's disease?


Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD).

Creatine (Cr) is an ergogenic compound that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal studies.

Researchers from University of Munich, Germany conducted a 2-year placebo-controlled

randomized clinical trial on the effect of Cr in 60 patients with Parkinson disease. Creatine

improved patient mood and led to a smaller dose increase of dopaminergic therapy but had no

effect on overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores or dopamine transporter

SPECT. [6]


Researchers from Columbia University found that creatine supplementation can enhance the

benefits of resistance training, such as Chair rise performance, in patients with Parkinson

disease. [7] Creatine is well-tolerated in most studies. However, intake of creatine does have

side effects. The common side effects of creatine are upper respiratory symptoms, joint pain,

and nausea. [8]


More about Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease - Supplements

Parkinson's Disease - Herbs

Parkinson's Disease - Side Effects of Drugs

Parkinson's Disease - Symptoms


[1] Fernandez-Espejo E. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease: prospects of neuroprotective and restorative therapies. Mol Neurobiol.

2004 Feb;29(1):15-30. [2] Johnston TH, Brotchie JM. Drugs in development for Parkinson's disease. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004

Jul;5(7):720-6. [3] Bonuccelli U, Del Dotto P. New pharmacologic horizons in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2006 Oct

10;67(7 Suppl 2):S30-8. [4] Beal MF. Mitochondria, oxidative damage, and inflammation in Parkinson's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003

Jun;991:120-31. [5] Shults CW. Therapeutic role of coenzyme Q(10) in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jul;107(1):120-30.

Epub 2005 Apr 21. [5] Hald A, Lotharius J. Oxidative stress and inflammation in Parkinson's disease: is there a causal link? Exp

Neurol. 2005 Jun;193(2):279-90. [6] Bender A, et al, Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized

pilot trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 10;67(7):1262-4. [7] Hass CJ, et al, Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body

strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):107-15. [8] NINDS

NET-PD Investigators. A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease.

Neurology. 2006 Mar 14;66(5):664-71. Epub 2006 Feb 15. [9] Gene therapy for Parkinson's "encouraging" in early trials AFP Wed Oct 14,

11:07 AM PDT


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It really takes a lot of mental gymnastics to read your post, but we need that kind of exercise. So, thanks. I have been part of the large creatine trial for almost five years. I don't know if I am taking creatine or a placebo, but determining actionable outcomes in a study like this seems next to impossible to me. Bottom line, if it only appears to the smallest degree that creatine remotely may provide a neuro-protective benefit, I would take it.

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I've been taking creatine for awhile now and it's helped alot.My stamina has returned and I don't get the ups and downs like before from the sinemet .I also don't get the cramps as much.Sleep has improved quite a bit.Hope all this continues.Im stilll taking 3 25/100 sinemet generic

best to all of you.

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lately i have been suffering from bad shoulder.the tendon is calcived and irrated.part of it might be caused by the creatine as it's noted to case joint problems so be wary.another cause might be stooped posture that causes shoulder problems.mine is not to bad but sometimes im realy bent over.This shoulder pain in the worst ive ever had and my shoulder is good only if i reach back.hope it gets better for the summer.our bodies realy take a beating with this disease.

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Sounds like it might be distonia - IMO the worst of the worst PD symptoms. With luck it could be L-dopa responsive as my elbow variety was for awhile. It might be arthritis and treatable by cortisone injection if you are really lucky. Keep us posted, please.

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i had a cortisone shot.the office i went to spent very little time explanning anything.the doc finaly came in and walked around the small room and left maybe 2 min. of his time.went to another office yesterday and this doc explanned the whole problem.she showed me the xray and explained about how this can seem to come out of nowhere.my shoulder has been weak for awhile before thisbut little pain.she said therapy and time should take care of it.

i to thought for awhile it might be dystonia but my sinemet had no effect on it.muscle wasting from parkinson im sure doesnt help much.thanks for all of your concerns

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Johnnys, I have gone to a great PT. She gave me some good shoulder exercises. If you want I can explain them to you in a private message. Don't wanna bore others.




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