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Dr. B, I hope you will continue to offer your relevant findings and opinions/thoughts on things Parkinson for the community here.  I'm appreciative that we can continue conversation via e-mail about my own medical issues.  Your input is of invaluable importance and help to all of us.  Thank you!

I read the following article related to one of the articles you posted by J. Kazda et al (eds.) The Ecology of Mycobacteria: Impact on Animals and Human’s Health. Springer Science & Business Media. June 10, 2010 522 pp. Page 214).  I then went on to  more about this subject and post this one::  

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285967316_Mycobacteria_in_water_soil_plants_and_air_A_review.

I just cannot get over how our government is choosing to ignore health issues that affect so many, as shown for example in this article above.

I also read yesterday of the CDC's decision to completely ignore the updated testing for Lyme Disease and continue to direct the use of the old testing.  Thank goodness there was such a strong reaction to that decision by so many that have influence, that the CDC Director "submitted his resignation."

It's yet another sad commentary on our country's being on the "wrong path" about which so many are upset.  It's hard to believe anything anyone in government says any more, or to even trust that they are working for our country and not special interest groups.  I don't find I feel trust from what any of them say any more.  I'm ashamed of what is going on, and I especially feel so bad for children and young people who are being exposed to so much that is forming who they will possibly become in a terribly negative way. 

Edited by Linda Garren

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Hi Linda:

Yes, I fully share your sentiments.

The article you've linked to from the Czech Republic is excellent, and I thank you for posting it for us to read. Not to go too far off topic, but when I was considering Long Island breast cancer, I found it hard to swallow electromagnetic waves, etc and instead found a possible link to water contaminated with one of the pathogens listed in this article, Mycobacterium avium.....as the history of Eastern Long Island is rife with poultry and especially large farms with Long Island ducks and the waste they necessarily produce. And yet a closer scrutiny of the extent to which this pathogen was being tested for in drinking water, even to this day, was quite disappointing.

Look, whether we like it or not we are part of an ecology consisting of many, many species: humans, animals, pets, insects, poultry etc which are also susceptible to these particular organisms, which are extremely difficult to diagnose. (To this day, there is no definitive cure for M. avium). And since they literally can attack all tissue and organ systems in the body, they can manifest in much more then one way in our body, including its central nervous system.

James Parkinson was quite aware of a possible connection between Parkinson's disease and the Mycobacteria. It was one of the major reasons he wrote his Essay, and now I notice that some of the anti-mycobacterial drugs are used by Lyme experts to combat not only Lyme but its related tick-borne pathogens (babesia-bartonella-ehrlichia). Rifampacin and pyrazinamide are being used.............Rifampacin in combination with other antibiotics in particular. Yet Rifampacin, is a first line anti-mycobacterial, as is pyrazinamide. We know this from Dr. Horowitz's fine book and we also know it from the work of Dr. Ken Singleton (http://www.lymebook.com/antibiotic-treatment-for-babesia-bartonella-ehrlichia-co-infections). Also there are those cases, already cited, that led to the abatement of Parkinson's symptoms with anti-mycobacterial drugs (presently off patent), although I notice that most of those studies were done abroad and not in the United States.

Yes.In lieu of Dr. Mac Donald's excellent presentation, the link to which you have shared, we know that present Lyme assays in America are far, far from bullet-proof. So it is puzzling why the CDC would not want to modify what is already in place. And unfortunately, I can not disagree with you about that our government seems to be deeply under influence of special interest groups, including the CDC and the NIH, even in such important/once important areas as the Zika virus and AIDS. But can we change this? I'm not so sure. So for now its best that we just simply try to help one another as best we can.

Best regards

 

Edited by Dr. Joel Binder

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19 hours ago, Dr. Joel Binder said:

Hi Linda:

Yes, I fully share your sentiments.

The article you've linked to from the Czech Republic is excellent, and I thank you for posting it for us to read. Not to go too far off topic, but when I was considering Long Island breast cancer, I found it hard to swallow electromagnetic waves, etc and instead found a possible link to water contaminated with one of the pathogens listed in this article, Mycobacterium avium.....as the history of Eastern Long Island is rife with poultry and especially large farms with Long Island ducks and the waste they necessarily produce. And yet a closer scrutiny of the extent to which this pathogen was being tested for in drinking water, even to this day, was quite disappointing.  It's a different world.  I'm glad to have had the opportunity to live in a better time.  It was rare that someone would be dishonest, and also people tended to sacrifice for others more.  It was so much more civil.  And so much else....   So was this a study you were researching?

Look, whether we like it or not we are part of an ecology consisting of many, many species: humans, animals, pets, insects, poultry etc which are also susceptible to these particular organisms, which are extremely difficult to diagnose. (To this day, there is no definitive cure for M. avium). And since they literally can attack all tissue and organ systems in the body, they can manifest in much more then one way in our body, including its central nervous system.  :huh:

James Parkinson was quite aware of a possible connection between Parkinson's disease and the Mycobacteria. It was one of the major reasons he wrote his Essay, and now I notice that some of the anti-mycobacterial drugs are used by Lyme experts to combat not only Lyme but its related tick-borne pathogens (babesia-bartonella-ehrlichia). Rifampacin and pyrazinamide are being used.............Rifampacin in combination with other antibiotics in particular. Yet Rifampacin, is a first line anti-mycobacterial, as is pyrazinamide. We know this from Dr. Horowitz's fine book and we also know it from the work of Dr. Ken Singleton (http://www.lymebook.com/antibiotic-treatment-for-babesia-bartonella-ehrlichia-co-infections). Thank you for posting this.  I've bookmarked it. Also there are those cases, already cited, that led to the abatement of Parkinson's symptoms with anti-mycobacterial drugs (presently off patent), although I notice that most of those studies were done abroad and not in the United States.  I'm very grateful for your sharing things like this, and I wonder if there are any others in the Forum who have both Parkinson's and Lyme or Lyme-associated diseases?  

Yes.In lieu of Dr. Mac Donald's excellent presentation, the link to which you have shared, we know that present Lyme assays in America are far, far from bullet-proof. So it is puzzling why the CDC would not want to modify what is already in place. And unfortunately, I can not disagree with you about that our government seems to be deeply under influence of special interest groups, including the CDC and the NIH, even in such important/once important areas as the Zika virus and AIDS. But can we change this? I'm not so sure. So for now its best that we just simply try to help one another as best we can.  I surely agree, and this Forum is testament to that fact.  And we also have to just wait out for people to eventually be fired from positions they have mishandled.

Best regards

 

 

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Hi Linda:

Thank you for your inserts.

Yes, sadly it’s a different world and I know just what you are talking about…..and yes the cancer study is one that I have been researching. Actually as mentioned, the anti-mycobacterials mentioned in this thread have been used in both people with Parkinson’s and Lyme’s, Lyme associated diseases, or just Parkinson’s disease. So this discussion is not really limited to Parkinson’s and Lyme-associated diseases. Interestingly, studies such as Fung’s showed that when patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease were treated with rifampin and isoniazid, two first line TB drugs, their condition was observed to improve [1]. Mital, Sarkari and Singh [2] published two cases of T.B. meningitis with Parkinsonism in which Parkinson’s symptoms almost completely disappeared during anti-TB therapy. In their first case, a 19-year-old farmer, seen six weeks after hospitalization, went from full-blown Parkinson’s towards a tremendous improvement in both his gait and tremors when put on antibiotics designed to combat tuberculosis. He was then lost to further follow-up. A second case they presented, involved a 25-year-old female, completely lost her tremors, parkinsonian facies and rigidity, again on anti-TB drugs. Mital, Sarkari and Singh’s conclusion: Not only did these cases illustrate that Parkinson’s could come from CNS tuberculosis, but this conclusion was reinforced by the fact that Parkinsonism almost completely disappeared through the use of anti-TB drugs. Concurrently, Kurasawa, Ikeda, and Inoue [3], puzzled by a lung mass in a 71-year-old Parkinsonian man’s chest, thought it to be malignant. But when it proved mycobacterial instead and the patient was put on two first-line drugs for tuberculosis, the patient lost his Parkinson’s –and two years later remained without it.

       A study by Otaki, at Ichikawa and Oizumi [4] at the Kirume University in Japan showed similar marked improvement in a 79-year old man placed on anti-tuberculous treatment after his upper right lung collapsed from the disease. Fuente-Aguado and Bordon [5], working out of the Infectious Disease Unit of Hospital Xeral in Bigo, Spain, treated a case of parkinsonism associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis with TB medications. Seven days after starting tuberculous therapy, signs of Parkinsonism disappeared entirely, accompanied by overall improvement in the patient’s clinical picture. Fuente-Aguado and Bordon’s conclusion: The extinction of Parkinsonism after tubercular therapy supported tuberculosis as a cause of Parkinsonism. Solanki and Kothari [6] reported two cases of full-blown Parkinsonism developing in a 30-year-old housewife and a 32-year-old male laborer, both of whom were being treated for CNS tuberculosis and both of whom lost their Parkinson’s with continued anti-tubercular medicines. 

1.      Fung VS and Thompson PD. “Rigidity and spasticity”. In Tolosa E, Jankovic. Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders”. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2007): 504–513.

2.      Mital OP., et al. “Parkinsonian symptoms in TBM. (a case report)”. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 22:8 (1974): 629-631.

3.      Kurasawa T, Ikeda T, Inoue T, et al. Pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium kansasii presenting as solitary nodule shadow in the left anterior basal segment. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1997 Feb;35(2):215-9.

4.      Otaki M., et al. “A case of endobronchial tuberculosis complicated with atelectasis of right upper lobe”. Kekkaku 69:7 (1994): 491-495.

5.      Fuente-Aguado J de la and Bordon J. “Parkinson in an HIV infected patient with hypodense cerebral lesion”. Tubercle and Lung Disease 77:2 (1996): 191-192.

6.      Solanki SV and Kothari VR. “Parkinsonian Syndrome”. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 68:12 (1977): 255-257.

  1.  
  1.  
Edited by Dr. Joel Binder
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How and Why a Recent NIH Clinical Trial Can Also Indirectly Support an Infectious Cause For Parkinson’s

 

In January of 2013 the FoxFeed Blog of The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research headlined a post Nicotine Patches to Stop…..Parkinson’s Disease? (file:///C:/Users/Joel/Documents/Nicotine Patches to Stop… Parkinson’s disease _ Parkinson'sDisease.html). Epidemiological data (in which patterns in comparative populations are analyzed) has long supported the idea that those who have spent years as smokers don’t get PD as often as non-smokers. The Fox Foundation became interested in learning more about nicotine and PD to the point that it launched a U.S. study to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of the very same nicotine patches that people take to try and quit smoking.   https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01560754 . In this study, which Fox called the “NIC-PD” trial (Nicotine-Parkinson’s Disease Trial) they planned to enroll 160 PD patients in Germany and the U.S., providing some volunteers with nicotine patches and others with placebo patches, in order to determine if the real patches might have the potential to slow the progression of PD. In the American arm of the study, eighty of these patients would be enrolled at 11 centers in the United States. The best case scenario was that the results would both show that disease progression was slowed, and are convincing enough to encourage a larger follow-up study which could prove to be more definitive.

Collaborators in the study were:

  • Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research
  • Parkinson Study Group (PSG)
  • International Parkinson Fonds Germany GmbH
  • German Parkinson Study Group (GPS)
  • German Parkinson Society (DPG)
  • Philipps University Marburg Medical Center

Results were expected in early 2017, although no formal data to this point have been published.

In the meantime, in 2012, the Journal called Neurology published a U.S. study which concluded  that transdermal nicotine could be safely administered to nonsmoking subjects with MCI (mild cognitive impairment) over 6 months with improvement in primary and secondary cognitive measures of attention, memory, and mental processing, but not in ratings of clinician-rated global impression. (The clinical global impression (CGI) rating scales (Guy 1976) are commonly used clinician-rated measures of global symptom severity and treatment response for patients with mental disorders.) These investigators concluded that this initial study provides evidence for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement in subjects with MCI; but that, whether these effects are clinically important will require larger studies. (http://www.neurology.org/content/78/2/91.abstract)

However the larger question remained how does nicotine prevent Parkinson’s and theories as dispersed as that nicotine may reduce the level of protein misfolding (prions) and prevent any proteins that have misfolded from accumulating in the cells to a genetic reason soon predictably sprang up.

But there was another possibility that clearly went under the radar of these scientists. By the early 20th century pellagra, caused by either the complete lack of or severe deficiency of vitamin B3 spurred research as to just what the chemical structure of vitamin B3 might be. Two forms of this vitamin were uncovered both of them, so similar to nicotine that UK scientists named them “nicotinic acid” and “nicotinamide”. And in Britain they remain so-named to this day. However regulatory bodies in the US thought it might be better to hide such direct naming, lest people seek to obtain their Vitamin B3 through smoking cigarettes. Therefore in the US, nicotinic acid was renamed niacin, and nicotinamide was retitled “niacinamide”. Such linguistic maneuvering, of course, did not change the fact that both molecules were still closely related to nicotine.

The story of nicotinamide’s anti-mycobacterial capacity is unknown to many, because the literature predates the careers of most people currently involved in the treatment of these infections as well as the National Institutes of Health PubMed database. In 1945, the first trials of streptomycin that involved humans were taking place in the United States, and a worldwide search for other effective anti–Mycobacterium tuberculosis therapies was underway. That year, in Paris, Ernst Huant reported a serendipitous discovery regarding the use of nicotinamide for the treatment of patients undergoing radiation therapy for “lung tumors.” He found that nicotinamide therapy, which he had initiated in an attempt to protect patients’ mucous membranes from the effects of radiation, shrunk those lung infiltrates that were caused by M. tuberculosis. This report complemented another report from France by Chorine, who suggested a new role for nicotinamide, distinct from its known vitamin effect, as an anti–M. tuberculosis therapy. McKenzie et al., who apparently were screening compounds without knowledge of either Huant or Chorine’s work, independently confirmed these findings. Two structurally related compounds, pyrazinamide and isoniazid, were found to be effective anti–M. tuberculosis therapies in the period from 1945 through 1951; these discoveries were made, in part, through the use of nicotinamide as a lead compound. Nicotinamide monotherapy resulted in clinical improvement for up to 64% of M. tuberculosis–infected patients described in published reports. However, interest in nicotinamide as a treatment for M. tuberculosis faded rapidly when one of the foremost research groups of the day reported antagonism between nicotinamide and isoniazid, a first line drug against tuberculosis when they were used together as a 2-drug therapeutic regimen. By the 1990s, all of this information had fallen into relative obscurity. In fact, a comprehensive review of nicotinamide’s pharmaceutical effects, published in 1991 (the year of the first reported use of nicotinamide in HIV research), makes no mention of its effects against M. tuberculosis.

Therefore, if James Parkinson’s original ideas that Parkinson’s could be a manifestation of tubercular ‘scrophula’ were correct, no other explanation for the Michael J. Fox’s NIH study entitled Disease-modifying Potential of Transdermal NICotine in Early Parkinson's Disease (NIC-PD) need be given.

And now you know the rest of the story………………

 

 

Edited by Dr. Joel Binder

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Wow.  Excellent write-up and information.  Em recently mentioned using niacin flush.  She may be interested in reading this.  I'll let her know about it.

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OK. Also I am interested in pursuing and researching out any other possible Parkinson's treatments that this Forum's viewers might need further information about and have found beneficial towards alleviating Parkinson's symptoms. This can even include herbal or homeopathic remedies.

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Also from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research:

Investigating the Role of LRRK2 in Mycobacterial Infection

 

LRRK2 Challenge, 2013

Objective/Rationale:             
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common known genetic risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Although we know that these mutations can cause Parkinson's disease, the physiological function of the LRRK2 protein (genes encode proteins) remains a mystery. However, a hint of the LRRK2 function emerged from genetic studies in people with leprosy, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. They found that LRRK2 is associated to susceptibility to infection with M. leprae. The aim of this project is to find out if LRRK2 participates in the immune response to mycobacteria.

Project Description:
We will use a wide range of cellular and pre-clinical models of mycobacterial infection combined with methods of LRRK2 manipulation such as pharmacological inhibition and gene knockdown/knockout. First, we will evaluate the impact of pharmacological manipulation of LRRK2’s activity and LRRK2 loss of function on the infective process of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cellular models. Second, we will investigate whether the loss of LRRK2 in knockout models alters the susceptibility to infection by M. tuberculosis.

Relevance to Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease:                     
Understanding the physiological roles of LRRK2 has the potential to shape our view of its role in Parkinson’s disease as well as our approach to targeting LRRK2 as a means to developing a therapy.

Anticipated Outcome:          
At the end of the project, we will know if LRRK2 is involved in the immune response to mycobacteria.

 

RESEARCHERS

Maximiliano Gabriel Gutierrez, PhD

Location: London, United Kingdom

 

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